The raw material cost for a particular component may be 20 times the cost if made from one material compared to another on a weight to weight basis. However the lifetime costs may be very similar if all of the other factors are also taken into consideration.
The material cost of a mass produced investment casting item may be 80% of the final cost. The material cost of a single complicated machined item may be less than 10% of the final cost. It is not possible to provide cost comparisons between different metals to any level of accuracy. Each metal is varying in price on a day to day basis and different alloys of the same metal can have significantly different costs. A grade 7 titanium alloy costs twice as much as pure titanium (grade 1,2 or 3).
Comparing costs should only be based on final installed costs. eg. for a domestic, industrial piping system a screwed steel system would cost about 40% more than a copper piping system.
The price of a titanium / titanium alloy products results from a number of factors:
- Alloying grade .some grades e.g with Pd alloying component, can significantly increase the price of the alloy.
- The purity of the grade… the more pure the higher the cost
- The test and inspection requirements;
- The procured quantities. The more ordered the lower the specific cost
- The geometry ..rolling or forging affects prices per volume or weight
- Demand ..e.g High defence demand for aerospace industry can result in higher metal prices
- Local economy.. Metal availability
In year 2000 the price of titanium was about 13 000 to 43 000/tonne..
In 2002 the price of raw titanium was about to 8960/tonne.
In 2005 to-date the price of titanium has varied between 6000 and 9000 /tonne
Ref 2010 ..I have enclosed a chart from the metalprices webpage to illustrate to range of titanium ingot pricing over a 12 month period
The table below can only really be used to give broad relative initial material costs. The figures are based on a reference source originating about 2002
|Stainless Steel||7780||4450||8,1||34 621||8,0|
|Copper Alloys||8900||5550||10,1||49 395||11,5|
|Zinc alloys||7100||2220||4,0||15 762||3,7|
|Titanium alloys||4500||17 000||30,9||76 500||17,4|
|Nickel alloys||8900||18 000||32,7||160 200||36,8|
Current Metal Prices.. November 2010
I have tried to obtain some current (Nov 2010) metal prices from various internet sources and I list them below..These sometimes differ considerably from the table above
|Material||Cost/tonne|| Relative Cost|
| Relative Cost|
|Steel (Billet) LME-Nov-2010||321||1||1|
|Steel (Hot Rolled Plate)-MEPS-July-2010||505||1,6||1,6|
|304 Steel (Hot Rolled Plate)-MEPS-July-2010||2 536||7,9||7,9|
|316 Steel (Hot Rolled Plate)-MEPS-July-2010||3 535||11||11|
|Tin- LME-Nov-2010||15 458||48||45|
|Aluminium Alloy – LME-Nov-2010||1 407||4,.4||1,5|
|Aluminium – LME-Nov-2010||1 425||4,4||1,5|
|Copper – LME -Nov-2010||5 279||16,4||18,7|
|Zinc – LME -Nov-2010||1 412||4,4||4,0|
|Nickel – LME -Nov-2010||14 398||44||51|
|Lead – LME-Nov-2010||1 414||4,4||6,4|
|Titanium (ingot 6AL-4V) steelonthenet (11$/lb)||15 700||49||28|
Prices in dollars for 25mm round bar x 300mm long (0,00015m3 ) …November 2010 (Onlinemetals (USA)
|Metal||Price $||1000/tonne||1000/m3|| Relative cost|
| Relative cost|
|Steel HR (A56)||6||3,2||24,7||1||1|
|Steel CD (12L40)||7,4||3,9||30,5||1.23||1.23|
|Alloy Steel (4130)||9,99||5,3||41,2||1.66||1.66|
Comparison of raw bulk material costs above with actual metal stock prices
Looking at the cost per tonne of HR steel in the form of a 1″ dia round bar 1 foot long at 3200 against the LME price for the raw material in bulk for at 321/tonne illustrates the massive diiference in the price of raw materials to the actual price of materials as supplied for initial machining processes in small quantities.
Source: Zhejiang Yaang Pipe Industry Co., Limited (www.yaang.com)