Stainless steel from the invention to the actual industrial application of time span of about ten years: 1904-1906 French Guillet first of Fe-Cr-Ni alloy metallurgy and mechanical properties of the groundbreaking basic research; 1907-1911, the French Portevin And British Gissen found the Fe-Cr and Fe-Cr-Ni alloy corrosion resistance and completed the Guillet research work; 1908-1911 German Monnartz reveals the corrosion resistance of steel and put forward the concept of passivation , Such as the critical chromium content, the role of carbon and molybdenum effects.
Soon, the practical value of stainless steel in Europe and the United States was recognized, industrial stainless steel grades have also come out: 1912 ~ 1914, Brearley invented 12-13% Cr of martensitic stainless steel and patent; 1911-1914, the Americans Dant-sizen invented ferritic stainless steels containing 14-16% Cr, 0.07-0.15% C; German Maurer and Strauss invented austenitic stainless steels containing 1.0% C, 15-20% Cr, <20% Ni , Then, on the basis of the development of the famous 18-8 stainless steel (0.1% C-18% Cr-8% Ni).
In practice, high-carbon austenitic stainless steels were found to be very serious intergranular corrosion problems, after Bain proposed the theory of intergranular corrosion of chromium-poor, and in the early 30s on the basis of 18-8 stainless steel developed titanium, Niobium stabilized austenitic stainless steel, namely AISl321 and AISl347. The same period also invented the ferrite – austenite duplex stainless steel, and put forward the ultra-low carbon (C ≤ 0.03%) the concept of stainless steel, but limited to the metallurgical equipment and technology level can not be used in industry.
As early as 1934, American Folog invented the precipitation hardening stainless steel, in the 40 ~ 50’s martensite, semi-austenitic precipitation hardening stainless steel began for military and civilian industries. This series is based on the United States Steel (U.S.Steel) successfully produced StainlessW as a starting point. In addition, in order to save nickel element invented the nickel-manganese to Cr-Ni-Mn-N series stainless steel, the United States AISl200 series steel.
After World War II, due to the development of the fertilizer industry and nuclear fuel industry, greatly stimulated the development of stainless steel, and because of the emergence of oxygen steel, 1947 ultra-low carbon type of stainless steel began commercialization. In the mid-1950s, high-performance stainless steel with excellent corrosion resistance was developed. In the late 1960s, high purity ferritic stainless steels with martensitic aged stainless steel, TRIP (Transformation Induced Plasticity) stainless steel and C + N ≤ 150 ppm were successively developed. In recent 20 years, by various local corrosion damage accidents, and the chemical processing industry continue to adopt new catalysts and new technology, has been developed on the basis of resistance to stress corrosion, pitting corrosion resistance, crevice corrosion, corrosion fatigue Special stainless steel, such as duplex stainless steel, high molybdenum stainless steel, high silicon stainless steel. In order to meet the needs of deep drawing and cold pier forming also developed a special type of stainless steel easy to shape. At present, the stainless steel series is also constantly improving. Since the late 20th century, since the late 1960s, a variety of production of stainless steel refining equipment and continuous casting equipment production, the world has also been completed with titanium stabilized austenitic stainless steel to low carbon, ultra-low carbon austenitic stainless steel transition, Stainless steel production level has reached a new level.
China’s stainless steel industry developed late in 1952, industrial production began. Since 1949, after the mass production of stainless steel with electric arc furnace, after the first production Cr13 type martensitic stainless steel, master production technology, and then mass production of 18-8 Cr-Ni austenitic steel, such as 1Cr18Ni9Ti, began in 1952. Followed by the development of the domestic chemical industry, and began to produce with Mo2% -3% 1Cr18Ni12Mo2Ti and 1Cr18Ni12Mo3Ti and so on. At the same time in order to save valuable elements of nickel, since 1959 to imitate Mn, N on behalf of the Ni 1Cr17Mn6Ni5N and 1Cr18Mn8Ni5N, 1958 to AISI204 steel by Mo2% -3%, developed 1Cr18Mn10Ni5Mo3N (204 + Mo), for the whole Cycle urea production plant to replace 1Cr18Ni12Mo2Ti.
From the late 1950s to the early 1960s, industrial trial production of 1Cr17Ti, 1Cr17Mo2Ti and 1Cr25Mo3Ti and other non-nickel ferrite stainless steel and began to study the fuming nitric acid corrosion of high silicon stainless steel 1Cr17Ni14Si4ALTi (equivalent to the Soviet Union grade ЭИ654), this steel actually Is an α + γ duplex stainless steel. 60 years, due to the domestic chemical industry, aerospace, aviation, atomic energy and other industrial development needs and the use of electric furnace oxygen steelmaking technology, a large number of new steel, such as 17-4PH, 17-7PH, PH15-7Mo precipitation hardening stainless steel, C ≤ 0.03% of ultra-low carbon stainless steel 00Cr18Ni10, 00Cr18Ni14Mo2, 00Cr18Ni14Mo3 and Ni-free Cr-Mn-N stainless steel 1Cr18Mn14Mo2N (A4) have been successfully developed and put into production. Since the 1970s, in order to solve the chloride and stress corrosion problems of 18-8 Cr-Ni steel in the chemical and atomic energy industries, some α + γCr-Ni duplex stainless steel have been developed and put into production and application. The main steel grades There are 1Cr21Ni5Ti, 00Cr26Ni6Ti, 00Cr26Ni7Mo2Ti, 00Cr18Ni5Mo3Si2 (3RE60) and 00Cr18Ni6Mo3Si2Nb and so on. 00Cr18Ni6Mo3Si2Nb is to solve the Swedish brand 3RE60 prone to single-phase ferrite welding after welding, resulting in decreased corrosion resistance and toughness and the development of N, Nb α + γ duplex stainless steel.
Into the eighties, the development and imitation of the N containing the second generation of α + γ duplex stainless steel to address chloride pitting corrosion, crevice corrosion and other local corrosion damage, such as 00Cr22Ni5Mo2N, 00Cr25Ni6Mo3N and 00Cr25Ni7Mo3WCuN, etc., not only China’s duplex Stainless steel system, but also deeply studied its structure and performance and N in duplex stainless steel in the mechanism of action.
Since the seventies, China’s stainless steel research work in other important progress: the development of high strength and ultra-high strength martensitic aging stainless steel and put into industrial trial and application; the use of vacuum induction furnace, vacuum electron beam furnace and vacuum consumption Furnace smelting and mass production of C + N ≤ 150-250ppm of high purity ferritic stainless steel 00Cr18Mo2, 00Cr26Mo1 and 00Cr30Mo2; Mo content of ≥ 4.5% of high Mo and high MoN-containing Cr-Ni austenitic stainless steel, such as the successful development 00Cr25Ni18Mo5 (N), 00Cr25Ni25Mo5N and so on in the chemical, petrochemical and marine development areas such as access to applications in the solution of concentrated nitric acid corrosion and solid solution intergranular corrosion, the development of 00Cr25Ni20Nb and several ultra-low carbon high Silicon stainless steel.
Since the eighties, ultra-low carbon steel and phosphorus content and α-phase amount of strict control of urea-grade stainless steel 00Cr18Ni14Mo2 and 00Cr25Ni22Mo2N two grades developed, their plates, tubes, bars, forgings and welding materials are used in the Large and medium-sized urea industry, and the results are satisfactory; as a result of some special steel smelting stainless steel have been built outside the furnace refining equipment, such as AOD (argon oxygen refining furnace), VOD (vacuum oxygen refining furnace) and has been put into operation, making China Stainless steel smelting technology to a new level. It not only makes the production of low-carbon, ultra-low carbon stainless steel easy, but also to achieve a significant cost reduction of stainless steel efficiency. As a result of Ti 18-8 Cr-Ni austenitic steel there are a series of shortcomings, the United States, Japan and other advanced industrial countries as early as 60 years has been achieved by the Ti-containing stainless steel to the widespread use of low-carbon, ultra-low carbon stainless steel Transition, and China is in 1985-1990 years to vigorously low carbon, ultra-low carbon stainless steel development, production and application of progress gratifying, such as the end of 1988 China’s low carbon, ultra-low carbon 18-8 stainless steel production accounts for China’s stainless steel Production of about 10%. However, compared with the advanced countries of stainless steel production and application (such as Japan, the United States and other countries with Ti 18-8 Cr-Ni steel production accounts for only about 1.5% of stainless steel), the gap is still large. In the 1980s, China developed nitrogen-controlled (N 0.05-0.10%) and nitrogen-alloyed (N> 0.10%) Cr-Ni austenitic stainless steels. The results show that N is a beneficial element in Cr-Ni austenitic stainless steels and duplex stainless steels. N element can enhance the sensitivity of intergranular corrosion of stainless steel to improve the corrosion resistance of stainless steel, in particular, to improve the corrosion resistance of stainless steel and other aspects of the mechanism.
Source: Yaang Pipe Industry Co., Limited (www.yaang.com)